Capital and major economic and cultural center of Russia, Moscow (in Russian: Moskwa) is one of the most fascinating cities in Europe, able to attract every year hundreds of thousands of tourists from all over the world. The center, which has just under 14,500,000 inhabitants, situated on the banks of the Moskva River in the south-western Russia. Following the extraordinary growth of the last century, the urban boundaries of cities have come to encompass many suburbs like Babushkin, Tusino, Kuntsevo, Ljublino Perovo and now to all intents and purposes an integral part of Moscow .
Founded in 1147 by Yuri Dolgoruky, the first village due to today’s Moscow was nothing more than a handful of small houses. Already in 1156, however, the Prince founder decided to fortify the town surrounding it with walls of which, however, could not anything against the advance of the Mongols in 1237, when Moscow was heavily damaged and looted. At the time of reconstruction, the city became the capital of an independent principality, but with the advent of the fourteenth century the town was conquered by Daniil Aleksandrovich, the son of Alexander Nevsky and member of the Rurik dynasty. During the fourteenth century the city grew to its size and its weight in the military and political, driving the Russian levied against the Mongols. In 1480 Ivan III finally the region from the hands of the Tartars, making Moscow the capital of an immense empire that stretched as far as Siberia. Moscow became the “third Rome”, after Rome and Constantinople itself, with its beautiful churches and the Orthodox Tsar who succeeded to the leadership of the kingdom until 1905, the year of the so-called October Revolution, which followed World War I, the Russian Revolution led by Lenin in 1917 and World War II.
The most famous landmark, the central point of the city, the emblem of Moscow is the Kremlin, a citadel fortified on the left bank of the Moskva Borovickij on the hill. The complex was completely renovated in the ’30s, is the oldest part of downtown and is home to many of the institutions of national government Russia , and one of the largest art and history of the country. While the western part of the Kremlin is surrounded by gardens of Alexander, one of the first public parks established in the city, the eastern part is where you’ll find most of the buildings. The whole area is instead bounded by walls built between 1485 and 1495, for a total of nearly ten miles of high walls from 5 to 19 meters that define an area of triangular shape.
Within the site, declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1990, stand out: the arsenal of the Kremlin, a huge double-decker trapeze-shaped building located at the northern end of the complex that now houses the Kremlin Regiment, the famous Piazza Red, placed near the scene of some eastern walls and monuments of great beauty, such as the obelisk to the national heroes Kuzma Minin and Dmitry Pozharsky and state warehouses Gum; the historic mausoleum of Lenin, a structure of marble and granite overlooking the Red Square within which lies the corpse of the charismatic leader, and the beautiful Cathedral of St. Basil, also called Pokrovsky Cathedral, commissioned by Ivan the Terrible to Postnik Yakovlev in 1555 and known worldwide for its original and colorful roofs onion overlook the different towers. Inside the Kremlin and Red Square are also held most of the events and cultural events that are celebrated each year in Moscow , including the Russian Orthodox Christmas, which begins with midnight mass on 7 January.
As for the museum aspect, there can not miss the famous Tretyakov Gallery, which houses the largest collection of Russian fine art in the world. In 1985 he opened a section devoted to modern art, housed in a large stand-alone building along the B ring inside of which stands a collection of sculptures of Socialist Realism, including the famous statue of Yevgeny Vuchetich depicting Feliks Dzerzhinsky. Other museums of note are the Tolstoy Museum and the Museum of Fine Arts, the Pushkin Museum.
For lovers of ballet and the performing arts, Moscow is one of the main points of reference in Europe and probably worldwide. The most famous theaters in the city, within which you can watch real masterpieces are the Bolshoi, the largest and most capacious, and Theatre Malij. Tickets for the shows you can purchase the same day the ticket or order in advance on the internet.
The climate is cold continental, characterized by very cold winters and short summers but warm. The extreme distance from the sea makes Moscow a city particularly cold, with temperatures in winter are steadily 5/10 to below 0 degrees and can reach peak minimum -30/-35. The summer, however, although short, is particularly pleasing, with a median value of just below 20 degrees and maximum values that can sometimes exceed 30 degrees. Rainfall is generally abundant and occur very frequently in spring and autumn, when nature begins to take cover.
With regard to transport and infrastructure, Moscow is one of the most advanced in Europe. The city airports are six: the Moscow-Domodedovo, the busiest, which in 2008 recorded the transit of 20,500,000 passengers well, and the Moscow-Sheremetyevo, with its 15,000,000 passengers per year is however one of the most important ports of Russia , the Moscow-Vnukovo, the Moscow-Bykovo, the Moscow-Ostafievo, and the Moscow-Tusino. Once you land, you should compare with the extensive but complex street and highway system that surrounds the capital, crucial crossroads between Asia and Europe. Alternatively you can take the train from one of the many stations of the center, from where trains also depart from Vladivostok, the so-called Trans-Siberian line. Are also quite convenient connections throughout the course of the Moskva river. Moving in the center will be particularly easy thanks to the subway, in operation since 1935 ago.
Originally posted 2012-08-12 13:33:43.