According to tradition, Rome was founded on 21 April 753 BC, a date marked focus on all the history books. During his nearly three thousand years of history, the city has always played a major role both in Italy and Europe, represent a point of reference, often a model for many other civilizations on the planet. Not surprisingly, in Roman times, Rome was known as Caput Mundi, or “Capital of the World”, a title that Plato has maintained over the centuries thanks to the papacy, whose headquarters is located in the Vatican from the second century. The empire ended in 476 AD, the Byzantine and barbarian invasions. Then gradually claimed material and the spiritual power of the Popes. The ancient temples and palaces in ruins formed the inexhaustible quarry for building materials to be used to build churches and towers.
The city changed its face again in the centuries 1500 and 1600, with the Renaissance and the Baroque. In 1870 it became the capital of Italy. He was then 200 000 inhabitants. The arrival of the Southern Piedmont and the renewed role in the country, again changed the face of the city, with the construction of new ministries and districts, such as meadows and the Esquiline, the outcome is not always exciting. 900 invested in the expansion of the forested hillside of Parioli. By mid-century the inhabitants were a million and a half, now affecting nearly three million. Having been the capital of the Papal States, the eighth century, the Kingdom of Italy, since 1871, Rome became the capital of the Italian Republic in 1946.
Walking through the center of Rome is like leafing through a book of history. Churches, theaters, palaces, fountains, aqueducts, arches and squares of different periods and styles chase in a unique and impressive penetration, able to convey emotions like no other. Among the most interesting attractions are undoubtedly the churches and places of worship in general, because right in the center of Rome there are also Protestant churches, a synagogue and the mosque of Europe’s largest. As for the Catholic churches, the most famous are the four patriarchal basilicas: St. John Lateran, which is also the city’s cathedral, San Pietro in Vatican, the church probably best known to the world, St. Paul Outside the Walls, located along Via Ostia near the left bank of the Tiber, and Santa Maria Maggiore, located on the summit of the Esquiline Hill. All four of these factories were part of the so-called “circle of the seven churches”, the path that the pilgrims had to walk and take in one day once they arrive in Rome , which were also included in the St. Lawrence Outside the Walls, Holy Cross and San Sebastian outside the walls.
No less interesting are the historical buildings. Very beautiful is the Capitol and the square facing him, designed by Michelangelo and surrounded by the Senatorial Palace, the New Palace, seat of the Capitoline Museums, and Palace of the Conservators. In ancient noble family all had their palaces, their homes around the city. To this group belong: Palazzo Venezia, commissioned by the Venetian cardinal Pietro Barbo and now houses the National Museum of Palazzo Venezia and the Library of Archaeology and History of Art, Palazzo Farnese, a Renaissance emblem of the sixteenth century, made by order of Alessandro Farnese, the future Pope Paul III, Palace of the Chancellery, whose windows overlook the square between Corso Vittorio Emanuele II and Campo de ‘Fiori, Palazzo Altieri, former residence of the family and home to some banks, and the Palazzo Barberini, Built between 1625 and 1633, which now houses the Galleria Nazionale d’Arte Antica and the Italian Institute of Numismatics. Just as worthy to be admired are the institutional buildings, those that have passed since hosted some of the most important positions municipal, regional or national. On all remember: the Quirinal Palace, built in the sixteenth century and now home to the Presidency of the Republic, the Senate, where it meets the Senate of the Republic, Deputies, which houses the Chamber of Deputies, Palazzo Chigi, the seat of the Italian government, the Interior Ministry, where the Ministry of the Interior, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, which houses the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and Palazzo Spada of the State Council.
The emblem of the Roman world for excellence are the theaters and amphitheatres, which is no shortage of facilities in Rome and arrived today in good condition. In addition to the famous Flavian amphitheater, better known as the Coliseum, which still today is occasionally open to plays and concerts, you can visit the theater of Pompey, the theater of Marcellus, the theater of Ostia and the ancient theater of Balbus, only cite those easily reachable from any part of the center. Other examples of monumental Roman architecture are the fountains and aqueducts, engineering works literally amazing when you consider the years in which they were built. Were numerous fountains were built by the Pope at the beginning of the Modern Era, such as the famous Trevi fountain, the fountain of the Acqua Felice, the Four Rivers fountain, the fountain of the Four Rivers fountain, the fountain of Neptune the Naiads. Always in engineering one can not fail to mention the many beautiful bridges that cross the muddy waters of the Tiber, which in ancient structures were built of wood only to be redesigned from the second century BC stone, exactly what happened to the well-known Milvian Bridge .
Although often inconspicuous, the military buildings are massively on the ground of the capital, which would certainly not have retained control over much of Europe and the Mediterranean for centuries without an efficient defense system. Among the most famous fortresses, one can not cite Castel Sant’Angelo, a monument of the Roman amended several times both in the Middle Ages which the Renaissance, but also Porziano Castle, the Castle and the Castle of Magliana length. To stagger the walls were the monumental gates, two or three arches, often decorated with marble friezes and sculptures.
To conclude the overview of the glorious past of Rome must necessarily remember the extraordinary Roman Forum, a site protected by UNESCO which are concentrated in a few things of immeasurable value. In ancient times this was the commercial center, religious and political center, characterized by the presence of important public buildings, workshops and palaces. Although some monuments are now virtually disappeared, walking into the Forum you can still admire the Tabularium and the Temple of Augustus, the Arch of Augustus, the Temple of Vesta, the Arch of Titus, the Basilica of Maxentius, the Basilica Porcia and many other ancient ruins.
If the past is very widely spoken, one can not help but remember that Rome also has a bright future, which surely in store for the great satisfactions. To secure a place at its first three millennia of life, Rome has completed or is completing some basic architectural and cultural projects that will enable it to attract the attention of the world. First, the realization of the MAXXI museum, recently presented in the Flaminio district, whose project was curated by Zaha Hadid, one of the leading architects of the twenty-first century, but also the expansion of the Museum of Contemporary Art Rome (MACRO), given the French architect Odile Decq, and the bridge of Music.
The climate is temperate, characterized by warm summers and relatively dry and mild, rainy winters. The best times to visit the capital are spring and autumn, periods where the climate is comfortable, the colors take on the surrounding hills is particularly picturesque and fall significantly above the influx of tourists and prices. The hottest months are July and August, when the maximum stable than the 30 degrees with peaks close to 40 and the minimum hardly fall below 20. The coldest is instead January, during which the average temperatures range between 12 and 2 degrees. The phenomena are very rare and snow affecting most frequently the surrounding hills, while the city is often beaten by wind, usually from the north-western quadrant, such as the north wind, the north-east wind, the mistral and the southwest wind.
Currently Rome is served by three airports: Leonardo da Vinci International Airport, better known as Fiumicino, which is the main Italian airport for passenger numbers, Giovan Battista Pastine International Airport, known as Ciampino, mainly served by low cost, and the airport of Rome, on the Via Salaria, just six kilometers from the center. To get around the city is absolutely not recommended for the car, with which it is virtually inevitable get stuck in a boring traffic jams, which are preferred by public transport, underground head. The two metro lines allow rapid moves in almost the entire central area, while to reach the outlying areas is often necessary to change and get on a bus, a tram or light rail wagons, serving more than 40 stations. Termini station is the reference point instead of the national railway, with many high speed trains from Naples, Florence, Bologna and Milan, who arrive every day.
Originally posted 2012-08-15 11:56:40.