The story is at home in Delhi, India’s capital. Here, the old and the new are constantly side by side, not only in the vestiges of the past, evidence of the alternation of different empires, but also in the social structure and in today’s lifestyle. In the name of Delhi, Dehali or Dilli is derived from Dhillika, name of Delhi South, located on the south-western border of the Union Territory of Delhi, in Mehrauli. Dhillika, the first in a series of seven medieval cities, was also known as Yoginipura, ie the fortress of the yoginis, the “goddesses”. However, there is another ancient settlement near Delhi, known as Indraprastha located on the banks of the river Yamuna.
The city experienced a significant development towards the eighth, ninth century AD with the foundation of Dhillika, the first of seven medieval cities, under the rule of Tomar, descendants of the Rajput chiefs. Dhillika was protected by a stone fortification, called today Lalkot, possessed splendid temples, baths and other sacred buildings. Around the middle of the twelfth century, the kingdom of Tomar was conquered by the Chahamana or Chauhan, a people from the Rajasthan central, and their leader Prithviraja Chauhan III extended the limits of the city building a second fortified wall with a door that is now called Qila Rai Pithora. The kingdom, however, was short-lived and fell in 1192-93 under the control of the Turkish hordes from Central Asia who started the era of Islamic rule. A new twist on political, cultural and social strikes Delhi with the arrival of the first European settlers, are determined to take control of the city and in general all over India. In the mid-nineteenth century the East India Company took control of almost all Indian states. In 1911, Delhi once again became the capital of India, even under the rule of the British. Also the British decided to build a new city here to give luster to the British crown; projects were entrusted to the architects Edwin Lutyens and Herbert Baker and, in 1931, was inaugurated New Delhi. With the Second World War and especially with the achievement of independence in 1947, New Delhi, under the pressure of population growth and new needs caused by political change, was forced to expand dramatically.
Most of the monuments and ruins of the past are of medieval origin and inspired by Islam. The tourists interested in the pre-Islamic ruins can visit the Rock Edict, the edict on the rock did carve Buddhist emperor Ashoka (273-236 BC) near Srinivasapuri (South Delhi), the recording contains the call with which the great monarch urged his people to follow the path of righteousness. Other inscriptions on the same subject are recorded in two columns, one located in Kotla Firuz Shah and the other placed in the northern part of Delhi. The Indo-Islamic architecture standards began to impose itself during the Khalji and developed new construction techniques from refined features such as the pointed arch, the dome and low geometric decoration. The best example of architecture of this period is the Alai Darwaza, situated in the Qutb complex. The buildings built during the Mughal period are the highest point of the architecture of Delhi. The style of the Mughal monuments deftly combines traditional Hindu characters with the traits of the last year of the Sultanate. Shahjahanabad is home to some interesting examples of time Shan Jahan and his successors.
The most important building, including the remains of the first four cities, is the complex of Quwwatu’l Islam Mosque, located inside the Fortress Tomar. The mosque, built between 1192 and 1198 by Qutbu’d-Din, included a courtyard, some cloisters and a prayer room. Within the complex there is a beautiful corridor consists of several columns Hindu in the courtyard of the mosque also stands an iron pillar representing Vishnu, who is due to Chandra Gupta, ruler of the fourth century AD In 1199 began the construction of another symbol of the city: the Qutb Minaret, symbol of victory and call for the faithful, the minaret is a tower tapered five-storey high 72.5 meters. Among the other remains of the complex is worth report the tomb of Sultan Iltutammish and especially Mehrauli, known for its quaint little bazaar. The village has two important places of worship, the temple of the goddess Jogmaya and the tomb of Khwaja divine Bakhtyar Kaki (1336), often visited by pilgrims of the place. Other important monuments in Mehrauli are: the Tomb of Adham Khan, the tank Shamsi, the Jahaz Mahal and the Tomb of Jamali with its colored ceilings.
Contained within Delhi, Tughlaqabad was built by the first ruler of the Tughlaq Dynasty, it is a city very well designed, the perimeter of about 6.5 km, with a citadel and a reservoir for water supply to south. The best preserved monument of the area is the mausoleum of Ghiyasu’d-Din Tughlaq, a stone building with sloping walls and red marble dome located in a mini-fortress equipped with battlements and bastions. On the way back from Tughlaqabad you can take a look at the ruins of Jahanpanah, the “fourth Delhi”, and especially some beautiful buildings Tughluq like Khirki Mosque, with its profile as a small fortress, the Mosque of Begampuri, With its huge facade, and the palace-called Bijay Mandal.
Heading north, past the fortifications of Siri and some villages recently built, you will come to the tomb of Muslim saint Nizamuddin Aulia. Also nearby are the Jamaatkhana Mosque (1315) and other historical ruins. To the east stands the Mausoleum of Humayun, erected by his wife in 1565. The monument, the first example of Mughal architecture, is a kind of tomb-garden with an octagonal dome with two which later served as a model for the construction of the Taj Mahal. Further north, on Mathura Road, here are the ruins of Dinpanah, the “sixth Delhi”, built by Humayun own. On the right you can see the ruins of a market, a gateway to the city and a mosque erected by the nurse of Akbar (1561), on the other side you will see the ramparts, a moat and the gates of Purana Qila, Humayun’s citadel. Inside you can admire a magnificent mosque and the Sher Mandal, a two-storey octagonal pavilion dating from the sixteenth century. Not far from Purana Quila, to the north, lies the Kotla Firuzshah, built with rubble and debris of other buildings. Near the southern walls of Purana Qila is located Zoo Delhi, famous for its white tigers and the great variety of animals and birds, mostly migratory. To the west of Purana Qila is the India Gate, built to commemorate the First World War, with its wide lawns and its basins, and the Presidential Palace, has 340 rooms and is surrounded by extensive gardens. The area between the arch of India Gate and the Presidential Palace is the theater of the sparkling spectacle that takes place every year on January 26 on the occasion of Republic Day celebrations in the south east of the lawns of India Gate is the Galleria of Modern Art, which contains numerous examples of painting and sculpture Indian. The gallery also houses a number of paintings of the famous poet Rabindranath Tagore, Amrita Shergil and Jamini Roy. Nearby is the National Museum of the Indian Ocean that includes exhibits important collections of Indian art and archeology as well as several murals and other Central Asian antiquities.
Along Aurobindo Marg and Parliament over Vijay Chauk Strett will come to Connaught Place, the most famous area of New Delhi with its hotels, restaurants and shops. The local craft stores are located in Baba Kharak Singh Marg, always near Connaught Place. At the intersection of Parliament Street and Connaught Circus is worth to visit the Jantar Mantar, a building with an unusual structure: it is a rough masonry observatory belonged to the noble Mughal Jaisingh, with huge machines that serve the codification of astronomical almanacs. Further west is located the temple of Lakshmi Narayana had built a few decades ago by Birla, the famous family of Indian industrialists. On the west bank of the Yamuna, along the eastern walls of the city, is Red Fort, a complex from the plant oblong created by Shan Jahan and used by it to the royal residence. The property also has a market called Chhata Bazaar, located between Lahori and Naubat Khana, and has many palaces, mostly in marble. Among the places of interest include the Hall of Public and Private Audience, the Royal baths, the Moti Masjid, the Rang-Mahal and Nahri-Bahisht, a channel alongside the ornamental gardens. In front of Red Fort is Chandni Chauk, the main shopping street of Shahjahanabad, once divided in half by a channel. On the left side of the road there are three important religious buildings: the Lal Mandir, the temple of Gauri-Sankar, dedicated to Lord Shiva and his family, and a Sikh Gurdwara built in the place where he was martyred Guru Tegh Bahadur, the ninth Sikh master. North of Red Fort, past the Kashmiri entry, you will find: the St. James’s Church (1824) with its beautiful sculptures, Metcalfe House, home of the “Resident” British, a Ashoka Pillar brought to Delhi by Firuz Tughluq, and Tomb of Princess Roshanara. The area between the entrance and the Kashmiri Ridge to the north, is still called Civil Lines and was expanded by the British before the creation of New Delhi. It is in this area, near the former residence of the viceroy, is located the University of Delhi.
Delhi offers excellent shopping opportunities with its appreciable variety of bazaars that sell cheap clothes and areas where some of the most famous designer boutiques. In the city you will also find many beautiful and handicrafts, including fabrics, brass, wood and metals, jewelery, leather goods and carpets. You will also find an incredible variety of regional sari from modern silk, chiffon and georgette, to the more casual cotton or crepe. Except in grocery stores and other shops which apply fixed prices, you will need to negotiate with the decision.
The climate of Delhi is a monsoon type, neatly divided into two seasons: dry and wet. The latter, also called monsoon is between June and October, although in specific months are July and August the most rainfall. From late October to May, the days are usually sunny and pleasant, with the only drawback represented by the thick fog that often descend on the city, mainly because of the high level of pollution. As for the temperature, the more pleasant months are February and March, while by the end of April the arrival of the monsoons, the days are hot and muggy, with maximum values usually reach 40 degrees.
Delhi is an important international gateway to India and a central node for internal transport, buses, trains or planes to be. With regard to air transport, domestic flights terminal (Terminal 1) Indira Gandhi International Airport is located about 15 kilometers south-west of Connaught Place, while the international terminal (Terminal 2) is located 8 km after. Between the two airports is a free shuttle service, while alternatively you can use the Ex-Servicemen’s Air Link Transport Service. Once on the ground, there will be catapulted to the chaotic streets of the capital. The main bus station is the Inter State Bus Terminal, north of the train station in Old Delhi, the main transport hub of the city along the rail station in New Delhi in Paharganj. City buses are usually crowded to excess, with autorickshaws and taxis that are much more attractive alternative. In 2002 he was also inaugurated the underground, quite practical but not very extensive.
Originally posted 2012-08-24 17:10:34.